Campbelltown Performing Arts High School
As teacher librarians, we can become frustrated and feel we are victims of occupational invisibility – that our contribution to whole-school programs and student outcomes is unseen and undervalued. This feeling may be due to the nature of our work in empowering colleagues. As a result, our contribution is often swallowed up in the successes of others (Oberg 2006). Our invisibility is also because, while we can see the impact we make on a daily basis, we can usually only offer anecdotal evidence regarding our contributions (Hay & Todd 2010; Lamb & Johnson 2004–2007).
To remedy this, we need to throw off the victim mentality and advocate for ourselves. We must become proactive. We must self-promote and make visible our contribution. To this end, we need to gather hard evidence to unequivocally prove that we make a difference (Bonnano & Moore 2009; Hay & Todd 2010). According to the Australian Library and Information Association (2004), excellent teacher librarians ‘undertake research which informs evidence-based innovation in school library programs’. Likewise, Hay & Foley (2009) advocate that, to build capacity for student learning in the 21st century, teacher librarians need to employ evidence-based practice to support a ‘continuous improvement cycle’. Similarly, The NSW Department of Education and Training (2010) has posited evidence-based practice as one of its foremost recommendations in creating sustainable futures for school libraries.
By undertaking evidence-based practice, we will not only be provided with hard evidence to show how and why teacher librarians make important contributions to student learning. We will also have an avenue for reflective practice that helps us to evaluate and constantly improve our teaching and learning programs (Gordon 2010; Todd 2003).
Evidence-based practice does not require exceptional analytical skills. We just need to begin gathering proof that we make a difference to student learning (Todd 2003). We can begin on the evidence-based practice journey by collecting documentation such as student work samples, student reflections and surveys, observation notes, focus group feedback, rubrics, peer reviews, lesson plans, checklists, critical feedback, circulation statistics and test scores (Lamb & Johnson 2004-2007; O’Connell 2012; Todd 2003).
One tried and true method of undertaking evidence-based practice is within a Guided Inquiry process. The Guided Inquiry framework is not only a model for promoting higher order thinking and information literacy skills, it also provides a mechanism for conducting evidence-based practice (FitzGerald 2011; Todd 2003). The Student Learning Through Inquiry Measure (SLIM) was originally developed as an assessment tool for use during the Guided Inquiry process (Gordon 2010; Kuhlthau, Maniotes & Caspari 2007; Todd, Kuhlthau & Heinström 2005). The SLIM toolkit also provides the dual purpose of allowing teacher librarians to undertake effective evidence-based practice (FitzGerald 2011; Scheffers 2008).
If we, as teacher librarians, want to be taken seriously as education professionals, we need to be proactive and self-promote our research findings using evidence-based practice in our schools. By doing this we can prove the contribution we make to improving student learning outcomes and demonstrate continued improvement in our teaching practices. To reinforce our own research findings, we can also direct teachers and executives to the strong empirical evidence of other academics who likewise prove the difference teacher librarians make to student achievement (NSW DET 2010; Oberg 2002).
To view previously published versions of this article, please see:
- Virtual Library: http://www.virtuallibrary.info/tl-musings/evidence-based-practice
- CSU Thinkspace: http://thinkspace.csu.edu.au/clctl/2015/01/20/evidence-based-practice/
For further reading on self-advocacy in school libraries, please visit the following web pages:
- The importance of school libraries in the Google Age, by Kay Oddone
- It’s time: let’s improve schools’ perceptions of teacher librarians, by Bev Novak
Australian School Library Association (ASLA) (2004). Standards of professional excellence for teacher librarians. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.asla.org.au/policy/standards.aspx
Bonnano, K. & Moore, R. (2009). Advocacy: reason, responsibility and rhetoric. ASLA Biennial Conference proceedings: engage, explore, celebrate. Australian School Library Association. Retrieved from http://www.asla.org.au/advocacy/School-library-advocacy.aspx
FitzGerald, L. (2011). The twin purposes of Guided Inquiry: Guiding student inquiry and evidence based practice. Scan, 30(1), 26-41.
Gordon, C. A. (2010). The culture of inquiry in school libraries. School Libraries Worldwide, 16(1), pp.73–88.
Hay, L. & Foley, C. (2009), School libraries building capacity for student learning in 21C, Scan, 28(2), 17-26.
Hay, L. & Todd, R. (2010). School libraries 21C: The conversation begins. Scan, 29(1), 30-42.
Kuhlthau, C. C., Maniotes, L. K. & Caspari, A. K. (2007). Assessment in guided inquiry. In Guided inquiry: Learning in the 21st century (pp. 111-131). Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited.
Lamb, A. & Johnson, L. (2004-2007). Library media program: Evidence-based decision-making. See: http://eduscapes.com/sms/program/evidence.html
NSW Department of Education and Training (2010) School libraries 21C: A school library futures project. School Libraries and Information Literacy Unit. Retrieved from:
Oberg, D. (2002). Looking for the evidence: do school libraries improve student achievement? School Libraries in Canada; 22(2) 10-14.
Oberg, D. (2006). Developing the respect and support of school administrators. Teacher Librarian, 33(3), 13-18.
O’Connell, J. (2012) Learning without frontiers: School libraries and meta-literacy in action, ACCESS, 26(1), 4-7.
Scheffers, J. (2008). Guided inquiry: A learning journey. Scan, 27(4), 34-42.
Todd, R. J. (2003). Irrefutable evidence: how to prove you boost student achievement. School Library Journal, 49(4), 52 ff. Retrieved from:
Todd, R. J. (2007). Evidence-based practice and school libraries. In S. Hughes-Hassell & V. H. Harada (Eds.), School reform and the school library media specialist (pp. 57-78). Westport, Conn: Libraries Unlimited
Todd, R. J., Kuhlthau, C. C. & Heinström, J. E. (2005). SLIM: a toolkit and handbook for tracking and assessing student learning outcomes of Guided Inquiry through the school library. Centre for International Scholarship in School Libraries at Rutgers University. Retrieved from: